Role of farmer’s indigenous knowledge for adaptation and mitigation to Climate Change in Kgalagadi-North District, Botswana
Main Article Content
This paper presents perception of farmers in terms of adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Kgalagadi-North District. The study used qualitative survey method and results are derived from purposively selected interviews using semi-structured questionnaire. The research focused on participants who were aged 50 years and above. Data were summarized and analysed qualitatively using descriptive statistics. Farmers’ perceptions showed that frequent wildfire was major cause of climate change. Farmers further mentioned that they were affected by irregular rainfall, increased temperature and recurrent droughts. The findings confirmed that milk production and number of calves per cows were in declining trend over the last 30 years. The results showed increased trends in donkeys’ population signifying importance of donkeys in farmer’s herd as adaptation strategy. The results revealed that livestock diversification, making use of migratory approach in search of pasture and water, and sale of livestock before onset of drought are key adaptation strategies developed by farmers. The results also displayed that farmers mainly used to practice different strategies such as saving food and seeds, use of drought tolerant crops, diversifying crop varieties and changing of planting dates to overcome the irregularity of rainfall. Results revealed that farmers mostly used to pray for rains and involve in environmental management for adaptation and mitigating. It seems that adaptation and mitigation measures employed by farmers helped them to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerability. We suggest that farmers’ experience for adaptation and mitigation to climate change plays a crucial role in scientific research and sustainable development.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Angassa A., Oba, G. (2007). Relating long-term rainfall variability to cattle population dynamics in communal rangelands and a government ranch in southern Ethiopia. Agricultural Systems 94: 715–725.
Barati F., Agung, B., Wongsrikeao P., Taniguchi, M., Nagai T., Otoi T. (2008). Meiotic competence and DNA damage of porcine oocytes exposed to an elevated temperature. Theriogenology 69: 767–772.
Bationo A., Vlek P. (1998). The role of nitrogen fertilizers applied to food crops in the Sudano Sahelian zone of West Africa. In Soil Fertility Management in West African Land Use Systems; Renard, G., Neef, A., Becker, K., Oppen, M., Eds.; Margaf Verlag: Weikersheim, Germany, pp. 41–51.
Berkes F. (2012). Sacred ecology (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Berkes F. (1993). Traditional ecological knowledge in perspective. In Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases, J. T. Inglis (ed.). Ottawa: International Program on Traditional Ecological Knowledge and International Development Research Centre. pp 1–9.
Berwyn B. (2018). How Wildfires Can Affect Climate Change (and Vice Versa); INSIDECLIMATE NEWS; Retrieved from; https://insideclimatenews.org/news/23082018/extreme-wildfires-climate-change-global-warming-air-pollution-fire-management-black-carbon-co2.
Bryan E., Deressa T.T., G.A. Gbetibouo G.A. and Ringler C. 2009. Adaptation to Climate Change in Ethiopia and South Africa: Options and Constraints. Environmental Science and Policy 12: 413–426.
Climate Change Science Program (CCSP). (2008). The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Sub-committee on Global Change Research. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA.
Dube O. (2003). Impact of climate change, vulnerability and adaptation options: Exploring the case for Botswana through Southern Africa: Botswana Notes and Records,Vol. 35, Retrived from https://www.jstor.org/stable/40980347.
Egeru A. (2012). Role of Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Change Adaptation: A Case Study of the Teso Sub-Region, Eastern Uganda. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 11(2): 217–224.
Fauchereau N., Trzaska S., Rouault M. and Richard Y. (2003). Rainfall Variability and Changes in Southern Africa during the 20th Century in the Global Warming Context. Natural Hazards 29: 139–154.
Gandure S., Walker S. and Botha J.J. (2013). Farmers' Perceptions of Adaptation to Climate Change and Water Stress in a South African Rural Community. Environmental Development 5(1): 39-53.
Gommes R., Petrassi F. (1996). Rainfall Variability and Drought in Sub-Saharan Africa: Environment and Natural Resources Service (SDRN) FAO Research, Extension and Training Division: Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/nr/climpag/pub/EIan0004_en.asp.
The Botswana Guardian Newspaper http://www.botswanaguardian.co.bw/news/item/3142-climate-change-threats-real-for-botswana.html accessed 22.09.2019
Hansen P.J. (2007). Exploitation of genetic and physiological determinants of embryonic resistance to elevated temperature to improve embryonic survival in dairy cattle during heat stress. Theriogenology 68 (4): pp. S242-S249.
Hassan R., Nkemechena C. (2008). Determinants of African farmers' strategies for adapting to climate changes: multinomial choice analysis. AFJARE. 2(1): 85–104.
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). (2017). Invasive alien species and climate change; Retrieved from https://www.iucn.org/sites/dev/files/ias_and_climate_change_issues_brief_final.pdf
IPCC (2007). "What are Climate Change and Climate Variability?" IPCC.
Johnson L.R. (2018). Basotho culture and the prayers for rain: Where climate change converges. Southern African Journal for Folklore Studies. 28. 19. 10.25159/1016-8427/3799.
Juana J. S., Kahaka Z. and Okurut F.N. (2013). Farmers’ Perceptions and Adaptations to Climate Change in Sub-Sahara Africa: A Synthesis of Empirical Studies and Implications for Public Policy in African Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural Science 5(4): 2013 ISSN 1916-9752 E-ISSN 1916-9760 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education.
Kaczan D., Arslan A. and Lipper L. (2013). Climate-smart agriculture: A review of current practice of agroforestry and conservation agriculture in Malawi and Zambia. Rome: United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.
Kevin C.U. and Nicholas O. (2010). Impacts of climate change on water resources in Africa: the role of adaptation. African Technology Policy Studies Network. 29.
Kgosikoma K.R., Phatsimo C.L., Kgosikoma O.E. (2018). "Agro-pastoralists’ determinants of adaptation to climate change", International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, Vol. 10 Issue: 3, pp.488-500, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCCSM-02-2017-0039.
Leonard A. (2006). Global warming could trigger insect population boom. Live science, Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com.
Lesolle D. (2012). SADC policy paper on climate change: Assessing the policy options for SADC member states. SADC Research and Policy Paper Series. 01/2012.
Maddison D. (2006). The Perception of and Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa (No. 4308), Policy Research Working Paper, Pretoria, South Africa. Available at:
Mader T.L. (2012). Impact of environmental stress on feedlot cattle. Western Section, American Society of Animal Science 62: 335–339.
Masipa T.S. (2017). The impact of climate change on food security in South-Africa: current realities and challenges ahead. Jàmbá - Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, ISSN: 2072-845X, 1996–1421.
Megersa B., Markemann A., Angassa, A., Ogutu, J.O., Piepho, H.P. and Zárate A.V. (2014b). Livestock Diversification: an Adaptive Strategy to Climate and Rangeland Ecosystem Changes in Southern Ethiopia. Hum. Ecol. (2014) 42:509–520, DOI 10.1007/s10745-014-9668-2.
Megersa B., Markemann A., Angassa A and Zárate A.V. (2014a). The role of livestock diversification in ensuring household food security under a changing climate in Borana, Ethiopia. Food Sec. (2014) 6:15–28, DOI 10.1007/s12571-013-0314-4.
Mertz O., Mbow C., Reenberg A. and Diouf A. (2009). Farmers’ Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel. Environmental Management, 43(5): 804–816.
Naab J.; Bationo A.; Wafula B.M., Traore P.S.; Zougmore R.; Ouattara M.; Tabo R., Vlek P.L.G. (2012). African Perspectives on Climate Change and Agriculture: Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation Potential. In Handbook of Climate Change and Agroecosystems Global and Regional Aspects and Implications; ICP Series on Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation; Hillel, D., Rosenzweig, C., Eds.; Imperial College Press: London, UK, Volume 2, pp. 85–106. ISBN 978-1-84816-983-8.
Naidoo S., Davis C., Van Garderen E.A. (2013). Forests, rangelands and climate change in southern Africa. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, Italy.
Nardone A., Ronchi B., Lacetera N., Ranieri M.S. Bernabucci U. (2010). Effects of climate change on animal production and sustainability of livestock systems. Livest. Sci., 130, pp. 57-69.Sirohi, S. Michaelowa A. (2007). Sufferer and cause: Indian livestock and climate change Climatic Change, 85, pp. 285–298.
Nelson G., Rosegrant M. Koo J., Robertson R., Sulser T., Zhu T., Ringler C., Msangi S., Palazzo A., Batka M., Magalhaes M., Valmonte-Santos R., Ewing M., Lee D. (2009). Climate change impact on agriculture and costs of adaptation, Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
Ng’ang’a S.K., Maute F., Notenbaert A., Herrero M. and Moyo S. (2012). Coping Strategies and Vulnerability to Climate Change of Households in Mozambique. CCAFS Working Paper No 28. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenha-gen, Denmark.
Nyasimi M., Amwata D., Hove L, Kinyangi J., Wamukoya G. (2014). Evidence of impact: Climate-smart agriculture in Africa. Wageningen, Netherlands: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA).
Nyathi J. (2017). The Boer, donkeys and Zimbabweans. Bulawayo24 news retrieved from https://bulawayo24.com/index-id-opinion-sc-columnist-byo-109230.html.
Nyong A., Adesina F. and Elasha B.O. (2007). The Value of Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies in the African Sahel. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 12(5): 787–797.
Oba G. (1997). Pastoralists’ traditional drought coping strategies in Northern Kenya. A Report for the Government of the Netherlands and the Government of Kenya, Euroconsult BV, Arnheim and Acacia Consultants Ltd, Nairobi.
Oba G. (1998). Assessment of indigenous range management knowledge of the Borana pastoralists of Southern Ethiopia. Commissioned by GTZ-Borana Lowland Pastoral Development Program in collaboration with the Oromia Regional Bureau for Agricultural Development. Negelle/Borana, Ethiopia.
O'Farrell P., Anderson P., Milton S. and Dean W. (2009). Human Response and Adaptation to Drought in the Arid Zone: Lessons from Southern Africa. South African Journal of Science, 105(1-2): 34–39.
Olwoch J.M., Reyers B., Engelbrecht F.A., Erasmus, B.F.N. (2008). Climate change and the tick-borne disease, Theileriosis (East Coast fever) in sub-Saharan Africa. J. Arid Environ. 72, 108–120.
Opiyo F., Wasonga O., Nyangito M., Schilling J. and Munang R. (2015). “Drought adaptation and coping strategies among the Turkana pastoralists of Northern Kenya”, International Journal of Disaster Risk Science 6(3): 295-309, doi: 10.1007/s13753-015-0063-4.
Parry M.L., Canziani O.F., Palutikof J. P., van der Linden P.J., and Hanson C.E. (eds.) (2007). Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK and New York, Cambridge University Press.
Prasad M.N.V. and Tewari J.C. (2016). Prosopis juliflora (Sw) DC; Bioremediation and Bioeconomy, Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/phreatophytes.
Roco L., Engler A., Bravo-Ureta B., Jara-Rojas R. (2014). Farm level adaptation decisions to face climatic change and variability: Evidence from Central Chile. Environmental Science and Policy 44: 86–96.
Schlenker W. and Lobell D. B. (2010). Robust negative impacts of climate change on African agriculture. Environmental Research Letters 5(1): 014010–014018.
Singh (2011). Geography. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 12.53. ISBN 978-0-07-107480-3.
Smith J.B. and Lenhont S. (1996). Climate change adaptation policy options. Climate Research 6: 193-201. Sons, New York.
Smith D.G. and Pearson R.A. (2005). A review of the factors affecting the survival of donkeys in semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Department of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, AB24 3FX. Email email@example.com Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Easter Bush, Roslin, and Midlothian, Scotland.
Smith R.C. (2013). Uncertainty Quantification: Theory, Implementation, and Applications. Computational Science and Engineering. 12. SIAM. p. 23. ISBN 1611973228.
Statistics Botswana. (2014). Population and housing census 2011 analytical report. Published by Statistics Botswana. Botswana, Gaborone.
Tambo J.A. (2016). Adaptation and resilience to climate change and variability in north-east Ghana. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 17:85–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.04.005.