Effects of enclosure management and rangeland sites on chemical composition of herbaceous species in south central Ethiopia
Main Article Content
This study was conducted in Adami-Tullu Jido-Kombolcha and Arsi Negelle districts, south central Ethiopia. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the interactive effects of grazing management systems and rangeland sites on dry-matter production and chemical composition of herbaceous plants in south central Ethiopia. Data were analyzed using GLM procedure in SPSS 16.0 version, which was used for mean comparisons using post-hoc t-test that can be employed to compare mean differences for enclosure and open-grazed areas. To test the effects of management systems and altitudinal variation on dry-matter production and chemical composition of herbaceous species, mixed model analysis was employed using sample site as a random variable while grazing management systems and altitude were fixed variables. A total of 28 herbaceous species were identified. Of the identified herbaceous species, 20 species were grasses, 2 species were legumes while 6 species were forbs. Among the recorded grass species, some were highly desirable, while others were in the categories of intermediate in terms of desirability and less desirable. We identified the dominant and common grass species that included: Arstida adscensionis, Cenchrus ciliarus, Chloris gayana, Chloris roxburghiana, Bothriochloa insculpta, Eragrostis papposa, Heteropogon contorus, Panicum maximum, Indigofer spinosa, Tephrosia pumila, Sporobolus pyrmidalis, Themeda triandra, B. nigropedata, Ocimum basilicum, Amaranthus dubis, Tribulos terrestris and Achyrantes aspera. The chemical composition of herbaceous plants were analyzed for DM, CP, NDF, ADF, ADL and Ash comparing two grazing management systems and three rangeland sites as patch mosaic units. The results of the present analysis showed that the average CP content in the open-grazed areas was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of the enclosed areas. The upper and middle rangeland sites displayed significantly (P<0.05) higher CP content for the open-grazed areas than the enclosure management across the study areas. The present findings suggest that the DM, NDF, ADF, ADL and Ash contents of herbaceous species was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the open-grazed areas than in the enclosure management.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Admasu, T. (2006). Pastoralists’ perceptions on range-livestock management practices and rangeland assessment in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of South Omo Zone. M.Sc Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University, Ethiopia. 159 pp.
Ahmed, B. (2003). Soil condition and vegetation cover in human impacted rangelands of Jijiga, Somali Regional State. M.Sc Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University. 108 pp.
Alemayehu, M. (2004). Rangeland: Biodiversity Concepts, Approaches and the way forward. Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 80 pp.
Alemayehu, M. (2005). Rangelands: Biodiversity Conservation and Management and Inventory and Monitoring. Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.103 pp.
Alemu T. (1982). Grass land composition and current feeding systems in Nekemite Awraja. M.Sc Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. 92 pp.
Amaha, K. (2006). Characterization of rangeland resources and dynamics of the pastoral Production system in the Somali region of Eastern Ethiopia. A Ph.D Thesis Presented to the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. 232p.
Ammar H., López S., González J.S., Ranilla M.J. (2004). Seasonal variations in the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of some Spanish leguminous shrub species. Journal of Animal and Feed Science 115: 327–340.
Angassa A. (1999). Range Condition and Traditional Grazing Management system in Borana. M.Sc Thesis. Alemaya University of Agriculture, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.
Angassa A. (2014). Effects of grazing intensity and bush encroachment on herbaceous species and range land condition in southern Ethiopia. Land Degradation and Development 25: 438-451
Angassa A. and Beyene F. (2003). Current range condition in southern Ethiopia in relation to traditional management strategies: The perceptions of Borana pastoralists. Tropical Grasslands 37(1): 53–59.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). (2000). Official methods of analysis (15th ed). Inc., Washington D.C., USA.
Arzani H., Mahdavi S. KH., Nikkhah A., Azarnivand H. (2006). Determination of Animal Unit weight and Animal Unit Requirement of Dalagh breed (Case study: Agh Ghala Region). Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research 13 (3): 236–248.
Asaadi, A.M., Yazdi, A.K. (2011). Phenological stage effects on forage quality of four forbs species. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment 9 (2): 380–384.
Baars R.M.T., Chileshe E.C. and Kalokoni D.M. (1997). Technical Note. Range Condition in high cattle density areas in the Western Province of Zambia. Journal of Tropical Grasslands 31: 565–573.
Beever D.E., Offer N. and Gill M. (2000). The feeding value of grass and grass products. In: A. Hopkins (Ed.), Grass, its Production and Utilization. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 440 pp.
Belaynesh D. (2006). Floristic composition and diversity of the vegetation, soil seed bank flora and condition of the rangelands of the Jijiga Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia. MSc Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University, Ethiopia.144 pp.
Ganskopp D. and Bohnert D. (2001). Nutritional dynamics of seven northern Great Basin grasses. Journal of Range Management 54: 640–647.
ILCA (International Livestock Centre for Africa), (1990). Livestock Research Manual. ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Melak Y., Angassa A and Abebe A. (2019). Aster Effects of grazing intensity to water source on grassland condition, yield and nutritional content of selected grass species in Northwest Ethiopia. Ecological Processes 8: 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-019-0162-z.
Mittal G.K., Sharma K.M., Maheshwari M.L. and Barsaul C.S. (2012). Chemical composition of some natural available fodder resources in Hill area of Chakrata (Utter Pradesh). Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 5: 341–344.
Shankute B., Hassen A., Ebro A., Asefa T. and Amen N. (2011). Identification of potential untapped herbaceous flora in the mid rift valley of Ethiopia and their nutritive value. African Journal of Agricultural research 6 (17): 4153–4158.
Sisay A. (2006). Livestock production systems and available feed resources in different agro-ecologies of North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University, Ethiopia, 139 pp.
Teka H., Casper M.I., Angassa A., Hassen A. (2012). Effect of seasonal variation on the nutritional quality of key herbaceous species in semi-arid Areas of Borana, Ethiopia. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 29 (4): 324–33.
Teshome A. (2007). Traditional utilization practices and condition assessment of the
rangelands in Rayitu district of Bale zone, Ethiopia. MSc Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, and Ethiopia.129 pp.
Tessema Z.K., Mihret J., Solomon M. (2010). Effect of defoliation frequency and cutting height on growth, dry-matter yield and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach). Grass and Forage Science 65: 421–430.
Van Soest P.J., and Robertoson J.B. (1985). Analysis of forage and fibrous foods. A laboratory manual for Animal Science 613. Cornell University, USA.
Yihalem D. (2004). Assessment of Botanical Composition and Stage of Harvesting of Selected Natural Pasture for Optimum Utilization as Hay at Andassa Livestock Research Center, Northwestern Ethiopia. MSc. Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. 69 pp.