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The paper considers the biodiversity and climate change perceptions in the semi-arid landscape of Botswana. Ecosystem services are essential to the planet’s equilibrium/wellbeing. However, anthropogenic influences, including climate change remain a stressor to the biodiversity resources. For Botswana, the land degradation and droughts, climate change and livelihoods are intertwined to divulge distinctive vulnerabilities and impacts. The existing action plans such as National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP), the Botswana National Action Programme to Combat Desertification (BNAP-CCD) and climate change’s nationally determined contributions (NDCs) point to the need for synergies. Research projects highlight increased vulnerabilities for various sectors, which challenge the country’s sustainability initiatives to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), National Development Plan 11 (NDP11) and the Vision 2036 imperatives. The perception study reveals the general public’s interpretations of what is good and what are challenges, at district levels. These reveal that biodiversity or climate change are not perceived to contribute much to the ‘good’ of the country, except for 2 district groups in northern Botswana. The national challenges hinge much on biodiversity loss and climate change – hence restricting attainment of the national development priorities.
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